Insufficiently Studied Parasites

In the United States, public health priorities and development of strategies to address health concerns are identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or CDC. Five parasitic diseases have been officially considered by CDC to have been neglected or not adequately studied. The list of neglected parasitic diseases include trichomoniasis, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, ChagasContinue reading “Insufficiently Studied Parasites”

When Human Cells Express The Wrong Gene

An organism is formed based from an architectural blueprint called DNA. In eukaryotes including human cell, the nucleus holds the DNA. Humans contain 46 chromosomes and for each chromosome, DNA is organized into a strand. Each shorter segment of the DNA strand is called genes. This is analogous to organizing a long paragraph into aContinue reading “When Human Cells Express The Wrong Gene”

Zona Reticularis and its Hormone

Zona reticularis is the deepest part of the adrenal cortex. It produces androgen (a steroid sex hormones) in a small quantity. Usually, androgens are produced in the gonads and are supplemented by the androgens produced in the zona reticularis. Adrenal androgens are produced in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone from the anterior pituitary and are convertedContinue reading “Zona Reticularis and its Hormone”

Basic DNA Extraction

Extraction of DNA or RNA must be done first before we can study and manipulate nucleic acids. There are many ways to extract different types of DNA. Most extraction techniques involve breaking the cell and destroying all unwanted macromolecules. Cells can be broken using a detergent solution called lysis buffer which can disrupt nuclear andContinue reading “Basic DNA Extraction”

Bacteria: Source of Biodegradable Plastic

The world produces more than 300 billion pounds of plastic from petroleum. Plastic is a material used to make bottles, containers, toys, and many other common items. Products made from plastic degrade at a much slower rate creating problems in the environment. Fortunately, natural plastic exists and bacteria are the main source. Polyhydroxyalkanoate or PHAContinue reading “Bacteria: Source of Biodegradable Plastic”

Flagellum of Prokaryotic Organism

Flagellum is a structure in bacteria that gives them the ability to move. The motor of flagellum comprise of a system of rings planted in the plasma membrane and cell wall. Protons are pumped out of the bacterial cell by the electron transport chain but diffuses back into the cell providing the force to rotateContinue reading “Flagellum of Prokaryotic Organism”

Hox Gene in Crustacean Ancestor and Modern-Day Insect

The Hox gene Ubx is fully expressed in crustaceans (region shaded in green) including the expression of the legs. The Hox gene Ubx is partially expressed in modern-day insect (region shaded in pink) resulting in formation of the homologous body segment similar with the crustacean but with the absence of legs. Source: Urry, Lisa A..Continue reading “Hox Gene in Crustacean Ancestor and Modern-Day Insect”

Common Insects and the Possible Diseases They Carry

Biological transmission occurs when the infectious microbes reproduce within a vector such as insects (arthropods) and the microbes are being transmitted between hosts. Most insects transmit the infectious microbes by biting the host. Below is a list of common insects and the pathogen/disease they may carry. Common Name Species Pathogen Disease(s) Black fly Simulium spp.Continue reading “Common Insects and the Possible Diseases They Carry”