How DNA Mutation Can Form New Species?

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Campbell Biology

Faithful replication of the genome and repair of DNA damage are important for the functioning of the organism and for passing on a complete, accurate genome to the next generation. The error rate after DNA proofreading and repair is extremely low, but rare mistakes do slip through. Once a mismatched nucleotide pair is replicated, the sequence change is permanent in the daughter molecule that has the incorrect nucleotide as well as in any subsequent copies. As we mentioned earlier, a permanent change in the DNA sequence is called a mutation.

Mutations can change the phenotype of an organism. And if they occur in germ cells, which give rise to gametes, mutations can be passed on from generation to generation. The vast majority of such changes either have no effect or are harmful, but a very small percentage can be beneficial. In either case, mutations are the original source of the variation on which natural selection operates during evolution and are ultimately responsible for the appearance of new species. The balance between complete fidelity of DNA replication or repair and a low mutation rate has resulted in new proteins that contribute to different phenotypes. Ultimately, over long periods of time, this process leads to new species and thus to the rich diversity of life we see on Earth today.

Source:

Urry, Lisa A.. Campbell Biology (p. 328). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition.

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