Acidosis is a condition of the body where the acidity in the blood is excessive. One of the common causes of acidosis is the reduced effectiveness of breathing especially when exhaling because it builds up carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. Metabolic problems that reduces the level of buffers and the promotion of acids in blood can also cause acidosis. An example where the acids can build up is by having a severe diarrhea because the condition promotes the loss of bicarbonate, a substance that helps regulate the acid in the body. In poorly managed diabetes, ketones are acids that the body produced as a form of fuel. Ketones can accumulate in the blood and cause a condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis. Other conditions such as heart failure, liver failure, kidney failure, and cancer can give rise to metabolic acidosis.
In some circumstances, the blood becomes too alkaline or basic and the condition is known as alkalosis. With this condition, carbon dioxide level and the concentration of hydrogen proton is very low. Respiratory alkalosis can be caused by lung disease, aspirin overdose, shock, and anxiety.
During severe vomiting, metabolic alkalosis may trigger due to the loss of hydrogen and chloride ions which are the components of the acid HCl. Some medications which include diuretics and antacids taken in excessive amounts can also cause alkalosis.
OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology